International entrepreneurship in Lebanon
Ahmed, ZU & Julian, CC 2012, 'International entrepreneurship in Lebanon', Global Business Review, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 25-38.
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This article provides a review of Lebanese entrepreneurial business practices since the 1920s. The characteristics of Lebanese culture are covered with special reference to the value systems inherent within Lebanese management practices. The historical development of Lebanese business in the context of management, culture and practices; innovation; individualism and collectivism; the role of government; indigenous entrepreneurs; education and training; and internationalization of Lebanese business is also reviewed via the literature and selected case studies. It is clear that the historical development of domestic business in Lebanon is unique and has been influenced by the civil war to a large extent and Lebanon’s previous trading relationships with its Arab neighbours.