Effect of endosperm starch granule size distribution on milling yield in hard wheat
Edwards, MA, Osborne, BG & Henry, RJ 2008, ‘Effect of endosperm starch granule size distribution on milling yield in hard wheat’, Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 180-192.
Journal of Cereal Science home page is available at www.elsevier.com/locate/jcs
Publisher's version of article available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2007.09.001
Increased flour yield in hard wheat is associated with increased endosperm rheology index, calculated from strength and stiffness as measured by the SKCS. A study of the fractured endosperm of hard wheat varieties grouped according to similar rheology index values was performed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Differing microstructures and fracture patterns were observed between each group. Specifically, the group representing high rheology index had a greater concentration of small starch granules in prismatic cells. Samples of diverse wheat germplasm were grown at two sites and subjected to laboratory milling. Starch granule size distribution (SGSD) analysis using a laser diffraction method was undertaken on a subset of samples in triplicate representing a range in flour yield. The results supported an hypothesis for a significant influence of SGSD on flour yield of hard wheat varieties. In addition, a significant part (R2>0.40 (p<0.05) at two sites) of the association appeared to be under genetic control. Results indicate a more even gradation of distributions involving an increase in the sample volume % of small granule (types B and C) and decrease in type A granules. This was associated with increased rheology index values and higher flour yield. The ratio of type A:C starch granules accounted for up to 58% (p<0.05) of the variation in flour yield in the samples studied. Thus, rheological parameters measured using a rapid SKCS screening method can be linked to the genetic regulation of SGSD with implications for the improvement of commercial processing performance of hard wheat.