Investigating knowledge transfer through transnational programs between Indonesian and Australian universities : A conceptual framework
Globalization stimulated demand for transnational higher education. However, little is known about how transnational programs can facilitate knowledge transfer between the partner universities—something that is often implied in the partnership arrangement. For the purpose of this paper transnational programs will be limited to dual degree programs between Indonesian and Australian universities, which, in recent years have been rising. Nevertheless, the discussion and synthesis may have value to other transnational programs. Situating the knowledge transfer in the wider context of globalization of higher education and the current reforms in Indonesian education, the paper acknowledges the tension between the need to generate revenue and the ideals of facilitating knowledge transfer and capacity development for Indonesian universities. Drawing on a detailed review of research findings in the business and education sector literature, this paper presents a conceptual framework that may be used to analyze knowledge transfer between Indonesian and Australian universities. Such investigations delineate the significant drivers underlying transnational programs for supporting knowledge transfer. The proposed framework incorporates the types of knowledge, knowledge transfer mechanisms, and the processes. It also considers how the inter-university antecedents may affect the potential for knowledge transfer between the universities. A discussion of how the framework may be used to implemented knowledge transfer concludes this paper.