Effects of seawater-neutralised bauxite refinery residue on properties of concrete
Barbhuiya, SA, Basheer, MPA, Clark, MW & Rankin, BGI 2011, 'Effects of seawater-neutralised bauxite refinery residue on properties of concrete', Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 668-679.
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Various industrial by-products, such as fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag and silica fume, have been used in concrete to improve its properties. This also enables any environmental issues associated with their disposal. Another material that is available in large quantities and requiring alternative methods of disposal is the Bauxite Refinery Reside (BRR) from the Bayer process used to extract alumina from bauxite. As this is highly caustic and causes many health hazards, Virotec International Ltd. developed a patented technology to convert this into a material that can be used commercially, known as Bauxsol™, for various environmental remediation applications. This use is limited to small quantities of seawater-neutralised BRR and hence an investigation was carried out to establish its potential utilisation as a sand replacement material in concrete. In addition to fresh properties of concrete containing seawater-neutralised BRR up to 20% by mass of Portland cement, mechanical and durability properties were determined. These properties indicated that seawater-neutralised BRR can be used to replace natural sand up to 10% by mass of cement to improve the durability properties of concrete without detrimentally affecting their physical properties. Combining these beneficial effects with environmental remediation applications, it can be concluded that there are specific applications where concretes containing seawater-neutralised BRR could be used.