An investigation into the behaviour of concrete containing seawater-neutralised bauxite refinery residues in silage effluent
Barbhuiya, SA, Basheer, PAM, Clark, MW, Rankin, GIB & Frost, P 2010, 'An investigation into the behaviour of concrete containing seawater-neutralised bauxite refinery residues in silage effluent', Biosystems Engineering, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 433-439.
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The farm production of silage as a winter-feed supplement is widespread. However, the bins in which silage is produced are subject to acidic and microbial attacks. Both these types of attack can lead to a weakening and failure of the concretes, especially on the outer lip of the open side of the silage pit. Consequently, the development of an acid-resistant concrete that can extend the life span of silage bins on farms could lead to considerable cost savings for farmers and, hence, can improve farm productivity. This paper reports on test results of an investigation into the behaviour of concrete containing seawater-neutralised bauxite refinery residues (Bauxsol™) exposed to sulphuric acid environments in the laboratory and to silage effluents. The concrete manufactured had a fixed water–cement ratio of 0.55 and natural sand was replaced with the Bauxsol™ at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by cement mass. Results indicated that the use of Bauxsol™ as a sand replacement material improved the behaviour of concrete both in sulphuric acid in the laboratory as well as in the silage effluent. Consequently, it is concluded that the Bauxsol™ can be used to replace 10% of natural sand to produce concrete that is resistant to silage effluents, providing an extended service life over conventional concretes used in silage pits.