Document Type

Conference publication

Publication details

Saenger, P 1999, 'Sustainable management of mangroves', in J Rais, IM Dutton, L Pantimena, R Dahuri & J Plouffe (eds), Integrated coastal and marine resource management: Proceedings of International Symposium, Batu, Malang, Indonesia, 25-27 November, National Institute of Technology (ITN) Malang in association with Bakosurtanal and Proyek Pesisir, Malang, Indonesia, pp. 163-168.


Mangroves are unique and valuable ecosystems which occur throughout the tropics and subtropics, occupying around 180,000 km2 around the world. Functionally, mangroves support a range of wildlife and fisheries resources, supply a range of commercial products and provide a number of ecological services. These include timber and honey production, fisheries nursery values, sewage wastewater treatment, and coastal protection.

Despite a greatly increased awareness of the environmental, and socio-economic importance of mangroves, they continue to be destroyed in many parts of the world. Urbanisation, pollution and aquaculture developments are three of the major agents of mangrove losses.

This paper explores links between the environment, the economy, and society which are intrinsic to the development of any sustainable management policy within the framework of integrated coastal zone management. To attain a balance between sustainable use, societal expectations and conservation, some guidelines will be discussed, including: (i) encouraging community regulation; (ii) zoning mangrove ecosystems; (iii) developing mangrove management plans; (iv) reassessing the value of mangroves; (v) improving community information; and (vi) rehabilitation of degraded mangroves.