Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China
Li, S & Zhang, Q 2010, 'Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China', Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 181, no. 1-3, pp. 1051-1058.
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Surface water samples were collected from 42 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River during the time period of 2005–2006. The concentrations of trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the seasonal variability and preliminary risk assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of 11 heavy metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the rainy season. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) revealed that variables governing water quality in one season may not be important in another season. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk, and indicated that As with HQ >1 and carcinogenic risk >10−4, was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, in particular for children. The first five largest elements to chronic risks were As, Pb, V, Se and Sb, in the dry season, while they were As, V, Co, Pb and Sb in the rainy season. This assessment would help establish pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contribute to preserve public health in the Han River basin and develop water conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project.