Arsenic accumulation and physiological attributes of spinach in the presence of amendments: an implication to reduce health risk
Shahid, M, Rafiq, M, Niazi, NK, Dumat, C, Shamshad, S, Khalid, S & Bibi, I 2017, 'Arsenic accumulation and physiological attributes of spinach in the presence of amendments: an implication to reduce health risk', Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
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The current study examined the effect of calcium (Ca) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on arsenic (As) uptake and toxicity to spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as well as assessed the potential human health risks. Spinach seedlings were exposed to three levels of As (25, 125, and 250 μM) alone or together with three levels of EDTA (25, 125, and 250 μM) and Ca (1, 5, and 10 mM). The effect of EDTA and Ca was assessed in terms of As contents in roots and shoots, hydrogen peroxide production, chlorophyll contents, and lipid peroxidation. The accumulation and toxicity of As to spinach plants increased with increasing As levels in nutrient solution. Exposure to As resulted in lipid peroxidation and reduced chlorophyll contents. The highest level of As alone (250 μM) showed highest human health risk (hazard quotient of 7.09 at As-250). Addition of EDTA enhanced As accumulation by spinach, while reduced As toxicity to spinach, as well as human health risk (hazard quotient of 4.01 at As-250). Similarly, Ca significantly reduced As toxicity to spinach and the human health risks (hazard quotient of 3.79 at As-250) by reducing its accumulation in spinach. Higher levels of Ca were more effective in reducing As uptake and toxicity as well as enhancing chlorophyll contents.