Specific praise improves on-task behaviour and numeracy enjoyment: a study of year 4 pupils engaged in the numeracy hour
Chalk, K & Bizo, LA 2004, 'Specific praise improves on-task behaviour and numeracy enjoyment: a study of year 4 pupils engaged in the numeracy hour', Educational Psychology in Practice, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 335-352.
The publisher version of this article is available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736042000314277
The effects of praise on student on-task behaviour, academic self-concept and numeracy enjoyment were investigated. Four year four classes and their teachers participated. Two teachers were instructed to use specific praise and two to use positive praise. Classes were independently observed on four occasions, twice before and twice after the praise intervention. Student on-task behaviour, numeracy enjoyment and academic self-concept were measured and teachers' use of praise was observed. Specific praise promoted more on-task behaviour than positive praise and significantly increased academic self-concept. Ratings of numeracy enjoyment were not significantly affected. Implications of this research for teaching practice are discussed.