Direct evidence for competition between local and global mechanisms of two-dimensional orientation illusions
Wenderoth, P, van der Zwan, R & Williams, M 1993, 'Direct evidence for competition between local and global mechanisms of two-dimensional orientation illusions', Perception, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 273-286.
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Orientation illusions induced by two-dimensional stimuli, such as square outline frames or plaids, have been more or less adequately accounted for in terms of repulsion of the vertical test stimulus from the axis of symmetry nearest vertical of the inducing stimulus, whether that axis is real or virtual. Recently, data have been obtained which directly suggest a more complex mechanism: one in which the observed illusion is the sum of all effects -- complementary and antagonistic -- induced by all axes flanking vertical which are sufficiently close to vertical to exert a significant effect. Experiments are reported in which this latter hypothesis was directly tested by using nonorthogonal plaid component gratings and varying the real-axis orientations while a virtual plaid axis remained fixed in orientation at 10° from vertical. The data indicate that the real component gratings modulate the virtual-axis effect.