Anti-inﬂammatory activity, cytotoxicity and active compounds of Tinospora smilacina Benth
Li, RW, Leach, DN, Myers, SP, Leach, GJ, Lin, GD, Brushett, DJ & Waterman, PG 2004, 'Anti-inﬂammatory activity, cytotoxicity and active compounds of Tinospora smilacina Benth', Phytotherapy Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 78-83.
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Tinospora smilacina Benth. has been used in Australian indigenous medicine for the treatment of headache, rheumatoid arthritis and other inﬂammatory disorders. As part of an investigation into the anti-inﬂammatory potential of plants using an ethnopharmacological approach, the present study sought to evaluate the efﬁcacy and safety of Tinospora smilacina. An ethanol extract of this plant was evaluated in vitro for anti-inﬂammatory activities on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and phospholipase A2 (PA2). The ethanol extract of Tinospora smilacina showed inhibitory activities on COX-1, COX-2, 5-LO and PA2 with the IC50 values of 63.5, 81.2, 92.1 and 30.5 ï¿½g/mL respectively. Cytotoxic effect of the extracts of Tinospora smilacina was investigated in vitro using ATP-based luminescence assay and the results showed no cytotoxic effect on cell lines of skin ﬁbroblasts (1BR3), human Caucasian hepatocyte carcinoma (Hep G2) and human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60). This paper also describes the results of fractionations and bioassay guided chemical studies, suggesting that the anti-inﬂammatory activity is due to triterpene-fatty acid esters and free fatty acids.