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Rali, T, Wossa, SW, Leach, DN & Waterman, PG 2007, 'Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea', Molecules, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 389-394.

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Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %), â- caryophyllene (8.2 %), piperitione (6.7 %) and á-humulene (5.1 %), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 %) and á-pinene (6.5 %).

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