The role of structure and molecular properties of terpenoids in determining their antimicrobial activity
Griffin, SG, Wyllie, SG, Markham, JL & Leach, DN 1999, 'The role of structure and molecular properties of terpenoids in determining their antimicrobial activity', Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 322-332.
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The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 60 terpenoids against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans have been determined. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group the compounds into five groups according to their activity patterns against the four micro-organisms. K-Means cluster analysis was then used to confirm these groupings and to show the differences in the activity patterns of the groups. Ten molecular properties of the terpenoids, either calculated via molecular modelling or determined by direct measurement, were then used as variables in a forward stepwise discriminant analysis to identify which variables discriminated between groups. Low water solubility of Group IV compounds, mainly hydrocarbons and acetates, was found to be associated with their relative inactivity. The remaining groups, all containing oxygenated terpenoids, showed characteristic but distinct activity patterns towards the four test organisms. Hydrogen bonding parameters were found to be associated with antimicrobial activity in all cases. Activity against Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa was associated with a combination of a hydrogen bonding and size parameters. This was not found to be the case for the Gram-positive S. aureus or the yeast C. albicans.