Anchorage devices used to improve the performance of concrete structures retrofitted with FRP composites: a state-of-the-art review
Kalfat, R, Al-Mahaidi, R & Smith, S 2013, 'Anchorage devices used to improve the performance of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with FRP composites: state-of-the-art review', Journal of Composites for Construction, vol. 17, no.1, pp. 14-33.
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The anchorage of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites when applied to reinforced concrete (RC) structures as externally bonded reinforcement is an effective means to achieve higher levels of fiber utilization prior to premature debonding failure. Commonly documented anchorage methods for FRP-to-concrete applications demonstrating encouraging results include FRP U-jackets, FRP anchors (also known as spike anchors, among other names), patch anchors (utilizing unidirectional and bidirectional fabrics), nailed metal plates (also known as hybrid bonding), near-surface mounted rods, mechanical fastening, concrete embedment, and mechanical substrate strengthening. Anchorages applied to FRP systems have been verified through experimental testing and numerical modeling to increase the ductility, deformability, and strength of the member and also prevent, delay, or shift the critical mode of FRP debonding failure. Although the benefits of anchorage solutions have now been widely acknowledged by researchers, further studies are required in order to establish reliable design formulations to negate the requirement for ongoing laboratory verification by industry. The present paper is a state-of-the-art review of experimental studies conducted in the area of FRP anchorage systems applied to FRP-strengthened RC flexural members. Available experimental data are compiled and catalogued and an anchorage efficiency factor for each anchorage type under investigation is assigned in order to quantify the anchor’s efficiency. Finally, current shortcomings in knowledge are identified, in addition to areas needing further investigation.