Institutional challenges to the effectiveness of management of Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Sidangoli, M, Lloyd, D & Boyd, E 2013, 'Institutional challenges to the effectiveness of management of Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia', Asia Pacific Viewpoint, vol. 54, no. 3, pp 372-387.
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Marine protected areas are recognised as an important marine management strategy to deal with a range of user conflicts and over-exploitation of marine resources. This article explores the experiences of establishing a marine protected area as part of Bunaken National Park in the north of Indonesia's Sulawesi Province. The challenges faced in relation to institutional issues are examined. A literature review, key informant interviews and analysis of official documentation provide evidence regarding issues around government conflicts and the legal and structural issues of the management advisory board. The analysis identifies key issues regarding the conflict between the government and the management board that are influencing the success of managing this National Park.