Population structure and correlation between auxiliary and target variables may affect precision of estimates in forest inventory
West, PW 2017, 'Population structure and correlation between auxiliary and target variables may affect precision of estimates in forest inventory', Communications in Statistics: Simulation and Computation, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 4951-4965.
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Simulations of forest inventory in several populations compared simple random with “quick probability proportional to size” (QPPS) sampling. The latter may be applied in the absence of a list sampling frame and/or prior measurement of the auxiliary variable. The correlation between the auxiliary and target variables required to render QPPS sampling more efficient than simple random sampling varied over the range 0.3– 0.6 and was lower when sampling from populations that were skewed to the right. Two possible analytical estimators of the standard error of the estimate of the mean for QPPS sampling were found to be less reliable than bootstrapping.