The characterization of iron (III) in seawater and related toxicity to early life stages of scleractinian corals
Leigh-Smith, J, Reichelt-Brushett, A & Rose, AL 2018, 'The characterization of iron (III) in seawater and related toxicity to early life stages of scleractinian corals', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1104-1114.
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Currently toxicity data for iron (Fe) in seawater are limited; furthermore, these data are of poor quality as a result of the importance of Fe solubility in test solutions being overlooked. The present study characterized the solubility and lability of Fe(III) in seawater and then examined the effects of Fe(III) on the fertilization success and larval survival of the tropical marine scleractinian corals Acropora spathulata and Platygyra daedalea. We present the first assessment of the effects of Fe on the early life stages of scleractinian corals. Concentrations of both soluble and labile forms of Fe were very low, with dissolved Fe concentrations ≤0.195 mg/L in bioassay test solutions and chemical determinations revealing labile Fe concentrations ≤1.21 mg/L. For fertilization experiments, the median effect concentration (EC50) value for total Fe was 25 mg/L for the most sensitive species, P. daedalea, whereas the EC50 values for A. spathulata ranged between 40 and 66 mg/L. The median lethal concentration value for P. daedalea larval survival was 47 mg/L Fe after 72‐h exposure. We provide Fe toxicity data for tropical marine keystone species that could be used to help generate more reliable guideline values for Fe in marine waters.