Influence of groundwater and wastewater irrigation on lead accumulation in soil and vegetables: Implications for health risk assessment and phytoremediation
Khalid, S, Shahid, M, Dumat, C, Niazi, NK, Bibi, I, Gul Bakhat, JFS, Abbas, G, Murtaza, B & Javeed, HMR in press in press, 'Influence of groundwater and wastewater irrigation on lead accumulation in soil and vegetables: Implications for health risk assessment and phytoremediation', International Journal of Phytoremediation.
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The current study evaluated the effect of groundwater and wastewater irrigation on lead (Pb) accumulation in soil and vegetables, and its associated health implications. A pot experiment was conducted in which spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) were irrigated with groundwater and wastewaters containing varying concentrations of Pb. Lead contents were measured in wastewaters, soils and root and shoot of vegetables. We also measured health risk index (HRI) associated with the use of vegetables irrigated by wastewaters. Results revealed that Pb contents in groundwater and wastewater samples (range: 0.18-0.31 mg/L) were below FAO permissible level (0.5 mg/L). Application of Pb-containing groundwater and wastewater increased Pb concentration in soil and vegetables. Lead concentrations in all soils ranged from 10-31 mg/kg and were below the permissible levels of 300 mg/kg of the European Union. Significant Pb enrichment was observed in the soils whereby all type of vegetables were grown and assessed for Pb risk. Our data showed that Pb contents, in all three vegetables (21-28 mg/kg DW), were higher than the permissible Pb limit of FAO (5 mg/kg DW). The HRI values were > 1.0 for radish and cauliflower. It is proposed that Vehari city wastewater/groundwater must be treated prior to its use for irrigation to avoid vegetable contamination by Pb, and as such for reducing Pb-induced human health risk.