Pore-water carbonate and phosphate as predictors of arsenate toxicity in soil
Lamb, DT, Kader, M, Wang, L, Choppala, G, Rahman, MM, Megharaj, M & Naidu, R 2016, 'Pore-water carbonate and phosphate as predictors of arsenate toxicity in soil', Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 50, no. 23, pp. 13062-13069.
Published version available from:
Phytotoxicity of inorganic contaminants is influenced by the presence of competing ions at the site of uptake. In this study, interaction of soil pore-water constituents with arsenate toxicity was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L) using 10 contrasting soils. Arsenate phytotoxicity was shown to be related to soluble carbonate and phosphate. The data indicated that dissolved phosphate and carbonate had an antagonistic impact on arsenate toxicity to cucumber. To predict arsenate phytotoxicity in soils with a diverse range of soil solution properties, both carbonate and phosphate were required. The relationship between arsenic and pore-water toxicity parameters was established initially using multiple regression. In addition, based on the relationship with carbonate and phosphate we successively applied a terrestrial biotic ligand-like model (BLM) including carbonate and phosphate. Estimated effective concentrations from the BLM-like parametrization were strongly correlated to measured arsenate values in pore-water (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001). The data indicates that an ion interaction model similar to the BLM for arsenate is possible, potentially improving current risk assessments at arsenic and co-contaminated soils.