Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil.
Seshadri, B, Bolan, NS, Choppala, G, Kunhikrishnan, A, Sanderson, P, Wang, H, Currie, LD, Tsang, T, Ok, YS & Kim, K 2017, 'Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil', Chemosphere, vol. 184, pp. 197-206.
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Shooting range soils contain mixed heavy metal contaminants including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn). Phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize these metals, particularly Pb, thereby reducing their bioavailability. However, research on immobilization of Pb's co-contaminants showed the relative importance of soluble and insoluble P compounds, which is critical in evaluating the overall success of in situ stabilization practice in the sustainable remediation of mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Soluble synthetic P fertilizer (diammonium phosphate; DAP) and reactive (Sechura; SPR) and unreactive (Christmas Island; CPR) natural phosphate rocks (PR) were tested for Cd, Pb and Zn immobilization and later their mobility and bioavailability in a shooting range soil. The addition of P compounds resulted in the immobilization of Cd, Pb and Zn by 1.56-76.2%, 3.21-83.56%, and 2.31-74.6%, respectively. The reactive SPR significantly reduced Cd, Pb and Zn leaching while soluble DAP increased their leachate concentrations. The SPR reduced the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in earthworms by 7.13-23.4% and 14.3-54.6% in comparison with earthworms in the DAP and control treatment, respectively. Bioaccessible Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations as determined using a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test showed higher long-term stability of P-immobilized Pb and Zn than Cd. The differential effect of P-induced immobilization between P compounds and metals is due to the variation in the solubility characteristics of P compounds and nature of metal phosphate compounds formed. Therefore, Pb and Zn immobilization by P compounds is an effective long-term remediation strategy for mixed heavy metal contaminated soils.