Antimony mobility during prolonged waterlogging and reoxidation of shooting range soil : a field experiment
Tandy, S, Hockmann, K, Keller, M, Studer, B, Papritz, A & Schulin, R 2018, 'Antimony mobility during prolonged waterlogging and reoxidation of shooting range soil : a field experiment', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 624, pp. 838-844.
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Due to its increasing anthropogenic use, antimony (Sb) soil pollution is of growing concern. Many soils experience fluctuating hydrological conditions, yet very little is known about how this affects the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. In this study, we performed an outdoor lysimeter experiment to compare Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and prolonged waterlogged conditions (1.5-2.75 years), followed by a 1.5-year period of soil reoxidation. Waterlogging reduced Sb leachate concentrations significantly compared to drained conditions and soil solution concentrations decreased with depth due to the increased reducing conditions. This was attributed to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the more effective sorption of the latter to metal (hydr)oxides. However, reductive dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides released Sb into solution, although Sb concentrations never exceeded those in the drained lysimeters. On reoxidation of the soil, Sb was remobilized, but even after 1.5years under reoxidised conditions, Sb leachate and soil solution concentrations still remained below those of the drained lysimeters. Our results demonstrate that prolonged waterlogging may have an irreversible effect on Sb leachate and soil solution concentrations.