Title

Phosphate-imposed constraints on schwertmannite stability under reducing conditions

Document Type

Article

Publication details

Schoepfer, VA, Burton, ED, Johnston, SG & Kraal, P 2017, 'Phosphate-imposed constraints on schwertmannite stability under reducing conditions', Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 51, no. 17, pp. 9739-9746.

Published version available from:

https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02103

Peer Reviewed

Peer-Reviewed

Abstract

Schwertmannite is a ferric oxyhydroxysulfate mineral, which is common in acid sulfate systems. Such systems contain varying concentrations of phosphate (PO43-)-an essential nutrient whose availability may be coupled to schwertmannite formation and fate. This study examines the effect of phosphate on schwertmannite stability under reducing conditions. Phosphate was added at 0, 80, 400, and 800 μmoles g-1 (i.e., zero, low, medium, and high loading) to schwertmannite suspensions which were inoculated with wetland sediment and suspended in N2-purged artificial groundwater. pH remained between 2.7 and 4.3 over the 41 day experiment duration. Fe(II) accumulated in solution due to dissimilatory Fe(III)-reduction, which was most pronounced at intermediate PO43- loadings (i.e., in the low PO43- treatment). Partial transformation of schwertmannite to goethite occurred in the zero and low PO43- treatments, with negligible transformation in higher PO43-treatments. Overall, the results suggest that intermediate PO43- loadings provide conditions which facilitate optimal reductive dissolution of schwertmannite. At zero PO43- loading, reductive dissolution appears to be constrained by the rapid transformation of schwertmannite to goethite, which thereby decreases the bioavailability of solid-phase Fe(III). Conversely, at high loadings, PO43- appears to stabilize the schwertmannite surface against dissolution; probably via the formation of strong surface complexes.

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