Sediment quality, elemental bioaccumulation and antimicrobial properties of mangroves of Indian Sundarban

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Bakshi, M, Ghosh, S, Ram SS, Sudarshan, M, Chakraborty, A, Biswas, JK, Shaheen, SM, Niazi, NK, Rinklebe, J & Chaudhuri, P 2018, 'Sediment quality, elemental bioaccumulation and antimicrobial properties of mangroves of Indian Sundarban', Environmental Geochemistry and Health.

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Mangroves have wide applications in traditional medicines due to their several therapeutic properties. Potentially toxic elements (PTEs), in mangrove habitats, need serious concern because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation capacity and ecotoxicological risks. In the current study, we aimed to examine sediment quality and bioaccumulation of PTEs in a mangrove-dominated habitat of Sundarban, India, and their relation with antimicrobial property of ten mangrove species of the region. Antimicrobial activity of different solvent fractions of mangrove leaves was assessed against seven microorganisms. The highest antimicrobial activity was detected in ethyl acetate and acetone-extracted fractions of Avicennia alba. Various sediment quality indices revealed progressively deteriorating nature of surface sediment having moderate contamination, however, low ecotoxicological risk. The accumulation factors (AF) for different PTEs indicate a gradual metal bioaccumulation in leaf tissue. Antimicrobial activities indicated both positive and negative correlations with manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of mangrove species. Concentration of Mn showed a significant correlation with almost all the fractions, whereas Cu had correlation with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions (P < 0.05). The AF of Mn and Cu exhibited correlation with antimicrobial activities of acetone and methanol fractions, whereas Fe and Zn had correlation with hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. Overall, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations of Acanthus ilicifolius and Avicennia alba leaves and in the surface sediments demonstrated the strongest association (P < 0.05) with their antimicrobial activity as also depicted in correlation and cluster analysis studies. Thus, this study will help to establish a link between the PTEs in mangrove ecosystem with their bioactivity.

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