The relationship between foot motion and lumbopelvic–hip function: a review of the literature
Barwick, A, Smith, J & Chuter, V 2012, 'The relationship between foot motion and lumbopelvic-hip function: a review of the literature', The Foot, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 224-231.
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Excessive pronation has been implicated in the development of numerous overuse injuries of the lower limb and is suggested to cause more proximal biomechanical dysfunction. Functional foot orthoses (FFO) are frequently prescribed for lower limb injury associated with excessive foot pronation and have been demonstrated to have efficacy with specific conditions. However, the mechanism of action of FFO is largely unknown. Research investigating the kinematic and kinetic changes associated with FFO use is inconclusive. Furthermore there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that changes to muscle activity patterns in response to FFO may be responsible for their therapeutic effect. Additionally, current research suggests dysfunction of musculature of the lumbopelvic–hip complex is involved in lower extremity functional changes and is related to the development some pathologies traditionally attributed to excessive foot pronation. Evidence of temporal coupling between the hip and the foot and changes in hip muscle activity associated with FFO use further suggest a relationship between proximal and distal lower limb function. The aim of this review is to discuss the association between foot and lumbopelvic–hip complex dysfunction and injury, assess the evidence for functional changes to lower limb and lumbopelvic–hip function with FFO use and finally to discuss the potential for changes to hip musculature activation with FFO use to influence distal mechanics and produce a therapeutic benefit.