Athlete burnout: an integrated model and future research directions
Gustafsson, H, Kentta, G & Hassmen, P 2011, 'Athlete burnout: an integrated model and future research directions', International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3-24.
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Athlete burnout is a multifaceted phenomenon. As a consequence, several attempts have been made to describe it from both a process and a state perspective. A number of theories and models exist that deal with the process of burning out and/or its antecedents. When viewed separately, the presented findings may be perceived as contradicting each other, or at best as confusing. To advance the field, we offer a comprehensive review of what is presently known within the area of athlete burnout and what new knowledge is needed. Furthermore, we suggest an integrated model of athlete burnout. This model includes major antecedents, early signs, consequences, and factors related to personality, coping and the environment. Our purpose is not to present the definitive model but to create a conceptual understanding of the field as it is seen today, and thereby stimulate empirical research to further advance the knowledge base.