The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down’s syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls
Thomas, P, Harvey, S, Gruner, T & Fenech, M 2008, 'The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls', Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 638, no. 1-2, pp. 37-47.
Publisher's version of article available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2007.08.012
The buccal micronucleus cytome assay was used to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death and basal cell frequency in buccal cells of healthy young, healthy old and young Down's syndrome cohorts. With normal ageing a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.05, average increase +366%), karyorrhectic cells (P < 0.001, average increase +439%), condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average increase +45.8%) and basal cells (P < 0.001, average increase +233%) is reported relative to young controls. In Down's syndrome we report a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.001, average increase +733%) and binucleated cells (P < 0.001, average increase +84.5%) and a significant decrease in condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average decrease −52%), karyolytic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease −51.8%) and pyknotic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease −75.0%) relative to young controls. These changes show distinct differences between the cytome profile of normal ageing relative to that for a premature ageing syndrome, and highlight the diagnostic value of the cytome approach for measuring the profile of cells with DNA damage, cell death and proportion of cells with proliferative potential (i.e., basal cells). Significant correlations amongst cell death biomarkers observed in this study were used to propose a new model of the inter-relationship of cell types scored within the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. This study validates the use of a cytome approach to investigate DNA damage, cell death and cell proliferation in buccal cells with ageing.