Two dimensional tilt illusion induced by orthogonal plaid patterns: effects of plaid motion, orientation, spatial separation, and spatial frequency
Wenderoth, P, Johnstone, S & van der Zwan, R 1989, 'Two dimensional tilt illusion induced by orthogonal plaid patterns: effects of plaid motion, orientation, spatial separation, and spatial frequency', Perception, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 25-38.
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Tilt illusions occur when a drifting vertical test grating is surrounded by a drifting plaid pattern composed of orthogonal moving gratings. The angular function of this illusion was measured as the plaid orientation (and therefore its drift direction) varied over a 180° range, This was done when the test and inducing stimuli abutted and had the same spatial frequency, and when the test and inducing stimuli either differed in frequency by an octave, or were spatially separated by a 2 deg blank annulus, or both differed in frequency and were also separated by the annulus (experiments 1 - 4). The obtained angular function was virtually identical to that obtained previously with the rod and frame effect and other cases involving orthogonal inducing components, with evidence for illusions induced both by real-line components and by virtual axes of symmetry. Although the magnitude of the illusion was very similar in all four experiments, there was evidence to suggest that largest real-line effects occurred in the abutting same-frequency condition, with a pattern of results similar to that obtained previously with the simple one-dimensional tilt illusion. On the other hand, virtual-axis effects were more prominent with gaps between test and inducing stimuli. A fifth, repeated-measures, experiment confirmed this pattern of results. It is suggested that this pattern-induced tilt effect reflects both striate and extrastriate mechanisms and that the apparent influence of spatially distal virtual axes of symmetry upon perceived orientation implies the existence of AND-gate mechanisms, or conjunction detectors, in the orientation domain.