A review of rice starch digestibility: effect of composition and heat-moisture processing
Khatun, A, Waters, DLE & Liu, L in press, 'A review of rice starch digestibility: effect of composition and heat-moisture processing', Starch.
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Rice grain as the staple food for more than half the global population 5 provides 20% of global human calorie requirements. Starch digestion rate is 6 an important consideration for rice consumers who are concerned about 7 health, particularly those with diabetes. Understanding the effect of rice grain 8 composition on starch digestion may assist the growing and processing of 9 rice for preferred eating quality and starch digestibility. Amylose content is 10 regarded as the key determinant of rice starch digestibility, however, starch 11 digestibility differs between rice varieties with similar amylose content 12 indicating the possible role of non-starch components in determining rice 13 starch digestibility. The current understanding of the role of starch and non14 starch compounds in determining rice starch digestion has been reviewed 15 here. Starch digestion rate is dependent upon starch granule size, starch 16 crystallinity, amylose content and amylopectin chain length and non-starch 17 components such as fibre, protein, lipid and polyphenols. Non-starch 18 components may complex with starch and inhibit starch digestion by 19 affecting starch properties or by producing a protective layer around starch or 20 by having antagonistic effects on digestive enzymes. Hydrothermal process21 ing of rice can alter the effects of starch and non-starch components on 22 starch digestion.