Seed colour loci, homoeology and linkage groups of the C genome chromosomes revealed in Brassica rapaB. oleracea monosomic alien addition lines
Heneen, WK, Geleta, M, Brismar, K, Xiong, Z, Pires, JC, Hasterok, R, Stoute, AI, Scott, RJ, King, GJ & Kurup, S 2012, 'Seed colour loci, homoeology and linkage groups of the C genome chromosomes revealed in Brassica rapaB. oleracea monosomic alien addition lines', Annals of Botany, vol. 109, no, 7, pp. 1227-1242.
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Background and AimsBrassica rapa and B. oleracea are the progenitors of oilseed rape B. napus. The addition of each chromosome of B. oleracea to the chromosome complement of B. rapa results in a series of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs). Analysis of MAALs determines which B. oleracea chromosomes carry genes controlling specific phenotypic traits, such as seed colour. Yellow-seeded oilseed rape is a desirable breeding goal both for food and livestock feed end-uses that relate to oil, protein and fibre contents. The aims of this study included developing a missing MAAL to complement an available series, for studies on seed colour control, chromosome homoeology and assignment of linkage groups to B. oleracea chromosomes. MethodsA new batch of B. rapaB. oleracea aneuploids was produced to generate the missing MAAL. Seed colour and other plant morphological features relevant to differentiation of MAALs were recorded. For chromosome characterization, Snows carmine, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used. Key ResultsThe final MAAL was developed. Morphological traits that differentiated the MAALs comprised cotyledon number, leaf morphology, flower colour and seed colour. Seed colour was controlled by major genes on two B. oleracea chromosomes and minor genes on five other chromosomes of this species. Homoeologous pairing was largely between chromosomes with similar centromeric positions. FISH, GISH and a parallel microsatellite marker analysis defined the chromosomes in terms of their linkage groups. ConclusionsA complete set of MAALs is now available for genetic, genomic, evolutionary and breeding perspectives. Defining chromosomes that carry specific genes, physical localization of DNA markers and access to established genetic linkage maps contribute to the integration of these approaches, manifested in the confirmed correspondence of linkage groups with specific chromosomes. Applications include marker-assisted selection and breeding for yellow seeds.