Genotypic variation in lysophospholipids of milled rice
Tong, C, Liu, L, Waters, DLE, Rose, TJ, Bao, J & King, GJ 2014, 'Genotypic variation in lysophospholipids of milled rice', Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 38, pp. 9353-9361.
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Phospholipids (PLs) play a prominent role in both grain cellular structure and nutritional function of cereal crops. Their lyso forms (lysophospholipids, LPLs) often combine with cereal starch to form an amylose–lipid complex (ALC), which may influence starch properties. In this study, 20 rice accessions were grown over two seasons at the same location to explore diversity in LPLs of milled rice. Levels of specific LPLs differed significantly among rice genotypes, demonstrating there is a wide diversity in LPLs in rice grain. The main LPL components were lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 16:0 (ranging from 3009.7 to 4697.8 μg/g), LPC18:2 (836.6–2182.3 μg/g), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) 16:0 (625.7–1139.8 μg/g), and LPE18:2 (170.6–481.6 μg/g). Total LPC, total LPE, and total LPL ranged from 4727.1 to 7685.2 μg/g, from 882.8 to 1809.5 μg/g, and from 5609.8 to 9401.1 μg/g, respectively. Although significant (P < 0.001) environment and genotype × environment (G × E) interactions were detected by analysis of variance (ANOVA), these effects accounted for only 0.7–38.9 and 1.8–6.6% of the total variance, respectively. Correlation analysis between LPL components provided insight into the possible LPL biosynthesis pathway in plants. Hierarchical cluster analysis suggested that the 20 rice accessions could be classified into three groups, whereas principal component analysis also identified three groups, with the first two components explaining 57.7 and 16.2% of the total variance. Further genetic studies are needed to identify genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the genetic control of LPLs in rice grain.