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Nieuwoudt, JE 2014, 'An investigation of the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in a non-clinical population of adult male weight lifters in Australia', PhD thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.

Copyright JE Nieuwoudt 2014


This thesis investigated the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia (MD) among adult weight lifters in Australia. Results of Study 1 (N = 48) indicated low inter-rater reliability for the proposed MD criteria, and that MD represented a syndrome of frequently co-occurring symptoms.Results of Study 2 (N = 648) indicated participants were at risk of having MD (17%), body dysmorphic disorder (10.6%), and eating disorders (33.8%). Evidence was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and body dysmorphic disorder, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders.