Manual testing for ankle instability

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Publication details

Wilkin, EJ, Hunt, A, Nightingale, EJ, Munn, J, Kilbreath, SL & Refshauge, KM 2012, 'Manual testing for ankle instability', Manual Therapy, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 593-596.

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Peer Reviewed



Aim: To assess inter-rater reliability of ankle manual tests. We also correlated the manual tests with the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT).

Method: One ankle from each of 60 participants was assessed using four different manual tests (anterior drawer in supine and crook lying, talar tilt, inversion tilt). Three different raters, varying in experience, tested each participant. The CAIT questionnaire was also administered. The study received ethics approval from the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. Intraclass correlation coefficients
(ICC), standard error of the mean (SEM) and percent close agreement (PCA) were used to determine reliability of the four tests. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between the manual tests and CAIT scores.

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