Document Type

Conference publication

Publication details

Lamont, MJ 2008, 'Wheels of change: a model of whole tourism systems for independent bicycle tourism', Proceedings of Re-creating tourism: New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Hanmer Springs, New Zealand, 3-5 December, Lincoln University, Christchurch, NZ.


Leiper’s model of whole tourism systems is a useful concept for generic research into tourism. However, when applied to certain forms of tourism, the elements in the model, as well as tourist flows depicted in it may exhibit subtle variations. This paper addresses two geographic elements of whole tourism systems: transit routes and tourist destination regions, using independent bicycle tourism to highlight variations in the model when applied to this form of tourism. Existing literature and empirical evidence are drawn upon to suggest the presence of a geographic hierarchy of destinations for independent bicycle tourists, in addition to the identification of two distinct forms of transit routes used by independent bicycle tourists. An adapted model of whole tourism systems specific to independent bicycle tourism is proposed and implications for theory and practice are discussed, as are avenues for future research.