'Take a deep breath’: how recreational SCUBA divers negotiate in-water constraints

Document Type


Publication details

Dimmock, K & Wilson, E 2011, ''Take a deep breath': how recreational SCUBA divers negotiate in-water constraints', Leisure/Losir, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 283-297.

The publisher's version of this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14927713.2011.614839

Peer Reviewed



A significant body of work now exists on what constrains people's leisure. While early theorizations of constraints focused on what prevented individuals from participating in leisure, the literature has expanded to include discussions on how constraints may be negotiated, overcome or substituted. This article explores constraints negotiation in the context of adventurous leisure. This study considers how leisure constraints are negotiated in the in-situ experience of recreational scuba diving. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 recreational divers. Analysis revealed three interrelated negotiation strategies used to deal with in-situ constraints, namely consolidate, co-operate, or cancel. These negotiation techniques were influenced by factors including divers' histories, perceptions of the severity of the constraint and in-water experience. Findings support the recognition of in-situ constraints negotiation in adventurous leisure. Results highlight the need to reflect on how individuals negotiate constraints during leisure, particularly in difficult environments which can present unpredictable and dangerous risks.

Find in your library